Friday, January 25, 2013


In order to control the transmission of microorganisms or any infectious disease, our hands is the main site that needs serious attention to.

Handwashing is always the primary thing to do in all types of isolation precautions. The germs are spreading everywhere and it is through giving much attention to wash our hands that the transmission of diseases or microorganisms will impede from scattering the body from the diseases.

Handwashing is the rubbing together of all surfaces and crevices of the hands using a soap or chemical  and water. It is a must to do handwashing before and after every direct contact of the patient, after arriving from work, between contacts of the patient, after removing the gloves, when hands are soiled, before and after eating, after contact with secretions and fluids of the body, after urination and defecation and whenever it is possible.

*To prevent the spread of microorganisms
*To kill the germs
*To ensure medical asepsis or clean technique

*Equipments should be accessible and easy to reach
*Water should be available and overflowing
*Wash by rubbing, circular motion and through rinsing
*Drying from cleanest (hand) to least clean area (forearm)

Procedure with Rationale: 
1. Remove jewelry. Wristwatch may be pushed up above the wrist (mid-forearm). Push sleeves of uniform or shirt up above the wrist at mid-forearm level.
Rationale: Provides access to skin surfaces for cleansing. Facitlitates cleaning of fingers, hands, and forearms.

2. Access hands for hangnails, cuts or breaks in the skin, and areas that are heavily soiled.
Rationale: Intact skin acts as a brarrier to microorganisms. Breaks in skin intergrity facilitate developemnt of infection and should receive extra attention during cleaning.

3. Turn on the water. Adjust the flow and temperature. Termperature of the water should be warm.
Rationale: Running water removes microorganisms. Warm water remoeves less of the natural skin oils thatn does hot water.

4. Wet hands and lower forearms thoroughly by holding under running water. Keep hands and forearms in the dowm position with elbows straight. Avoid splashing water and touching the sides of the sink.
Rationale: Water should flow from the least contaminated to the most contaminated areas of the skin. Hands are considered more contaminated than arms. Splashing of water facilitates transfer of microorganisms. Touching of any surface during cleaning contaminates the skin.

5. Apply about 5 ml or 1 teaspoon of liquid soap. Lather thorougly.
Rationale: Lather facilitates removal of microorganisms. Liquid soap harbors fewer bacteria than does bar soap.

6. Thoroughly rub hands together for about 20 seconds. Interlace fingers and thumbs and move back and forth to wash between digits. Rub palms and back of hands with circular motion. Special attention should be provided to areas such as the knuckles and fingernails, which are known to harbor organisms.
Rationale: Friction mechanically removes microorganisms form the skin surface. Friction loosens dirt from soiled areas.

7. Rinse with hands in the down position, elbows straight. Rinse in the direction of forearm to wrist to fingers.
Rationale: Flow of water rinses away dirt and microorganisms.

8. Blot hands and forearms to dry thoroughly. Dry in the direction of fingers to wrist and forearms. Discard the paper towels in the proper receptacle.
Rationale: Blotting reduces chapping of skin. Drying from cleanest (hand) to least clean area (forearm) prevents transfer of microorganisms to cleanest area.

9. Turn off the water faucet with a clean, dry paper towel.
Rationale: Prevents contamination of clean hands by a less clean faucet.

Source: Fundamentals of Nursing by Rick Daniels, Frederick Wilkins and Ruth Grendell

Thursday, January 17, 2013

The importance of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)

HCG is present in our hormone. It allows our body to metabolize stored fats and use it for energy. This kind of hormone is also present in mothers during pregnancy.  

HCG shares a major task in our body.  Increasing hcg levels allow the body to work on fat reserves. Then the fats will be converted to energy, making you lose weight at a fast way. 

Indeed, hcg helps us to live a healthy life! 

Madeleine Leininger: Her life.

My teacher in English told the class that we are going to select out from the numerous Nursing Theorists to make a biography of their lives in terms of their background, personal achievements, their contribution and works. I have chosen Madeleine Leininger because I have admired the kind of efforts she shared especially to the field of nursing. It makes me significant to know her.

This is what I have got in my short research of her.


Madeleine Leininger, PhD, LHD, DS, CTN, RN, FAAN, FRCNA

            She was born on July 13, 1925 in Sutton, Nebraska, U.S.A.,lived on a farm with four brothers and sisters, and graduated from Sutton High School. Her desire to pursue a career in nursing was due to her inspiration and experience with her aunt who suffered from congenital heart disease. She died at her home at the same state on August 10, 2012.
            She earned a nursing diploma from St. Anthony's Hospital School of Nursing, followed by undergraduate degrees at Mount St. Scholastica College and Creighton University. She received a Master of Science in Nursing at Catholic University of America. She later studied cultural and social anthropology at the University of Washington, earning a Ph.D. in 1966.
            Professor Leininger was Dean of the Schools of Nursing at the University of Washington and the University of Utah. She was the first full-time President of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing and one of the first members of the American Academy of Nursing in 1975. She is the author and editor of over 28 books and over 200 published articles. She has given approximately 1,800 keynote and general public lectures in the USA and overseas. She was the first graduate professional nurse to pursue a PhD in anthropology in the 1950s and conducted the first transcultural nursing research study in the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea. Since then she has studied over 15 Western and non-Western cultures. She remains active as a transcultural researcher, theorist, and consultant with several organizations worldwide.

            During her past 50 years in academe, she has taught over 30,000 nursing students and students from other disciplines in her areas of expertise namely transcultural nursing, health care, globalization of health care, qualitative research methods, human caring, the theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality, cultures of nursing and medicine, structure of cultural organizations, and the future of nursing and health care.
            Her main contribution especially to the world of Nursing is her Madeleine Leininger's theory of Transcultural Nursing, also known as Culture Care Theory, falls under both the category of a specialty, as well as a general practice area. The theory has now developed into a discipline in nursing.
            Dr. Leininger's theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality with her well known Sunrise Model and her ethnonursing research method continue to be used worldwide as the major holistic and yet particularistic theory to establish the transcultural nursing discipline and profession as the new direction for the future. This theory was the first cultural care nursing theory and the first ethnonursing research method in nursing. While the theory was slow to take hold due to nurses' lack of knowledge about cultures and transcultural care phenomena, it has gained significance worldwide. Dr. Leininger was the first in the 1960s to coin the concept "culturally congruent care" which was the goal of the Theory of Culture Care, and today the concept is being used globally. Her Culture Care Theory is being taught in many nursing schools and used in general interdisciplinary health professional schools and community agencies. It is also used for culturalogical assessments to transform health care systems from largely unicultural to multicultural practices. Canada, Finland, Sweden, Australia, the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, Europe, and the Caribbean have discovered the importance of the culture care theory to arrive at holistic and comprehensive care knowledge to guide nursing practices. Today the transcultural nursing and health care movement is viewed by many as one of the most significant and major breakthroughs of the 20th Century and essential for future health care practices.
            Leininger held at least three honorary doctoral degrees. He held faculty positions at the University of Cincinnati and the University of Colorado, followed by service as a nursing school dean at both the University of Washington and the University of Utah. She was Professor Emeritus of Nursing at Wayne State University and an adjunct faculty member at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha. She received an honor and awards in 1998 for Living Legend, American Academy of Nursing and  Distinguished Fellow, Royal College of Nursing in Australia.
            It was in the early 1950s Dr. Leininger saw a critical need to establish the new field of transcultural nursing as a formal area of study and practice. Then in 1974, she spearheaded establishing the Transcultural Nursing Society as the official organization with annual trans-world conventions with chapters of the society. Later, in 1978 the National Research Caring Conferences that became the International Caring Association in 1987. She also established the Journal of Transcultural Nursing and served as editor from 1989-1995. In addition, she initiated and promoted worldwide certification of transcultural nurses (CTN) for client safety and knowledgeable care for people of diverse cultures.
            The Transcultural Nursing theory first appeared in Leininger's Culture Care Diversity and Universality, published in 1991, but it was developed in the 1950s. The theory was further developed in her book Transcultural Nursing, which was published in 1995. In the third edition of Transcultural Nursing, published in 2002, the theory-based research and the application of the Transcultural theory are explained.
            In transcultural nursing, nurses practice according to the patient's cultural considerations. It begins with a culturalogical assessment, which takes the patient's cultural background into consideration in assessing the patient and his or her health. Once the assessment is complete, the nurse should use the culturalogical assessment to create a nursing care plan that also takes the patient's cultural background into consideration.
            There are many reasons it's beneficial for nurses to use cultural knowledge of patients to treat them. First of all, it helps nurses to be aware of ways in which the patient's culture and faith system provide resources for their experiences with illness, suffering, and even death. It helps nurses to be understanding and respectful of the diversity that is often very present in a nurse's patient load. It also helps strengthen a nurse's commitment to nursing based on nurse-patient relationships and emphasizing the whole person rather than viewing the patient as simply a set of symptoms or an illness. Finally, using cultural knowledge to treat a patient also helps a nurse to be open minded to treatments that can be considered non-traditional, such as spiritually based therapies like meditation and anointing.
            In the Transcultural Nursing theory, nurses have a responsibility to understand the role of culture in the health of the patient. Not only can a cultural background influence a patient's health, but the patient may be taking home remedies that can affect his or her health, as well.
            Leininger identified three nursing decisions and actions that achieve culturally friendly care for the patient. They are: cultural preservation or maintenance, cultural care accomodation or negotiation, and cultural care repatterning or restructuring. (Leininger, 2012)


Saturday, January 12, 2013

Everything in life has its ups and downs

Life displays various facets of sides. At times we can be happy, at times also we can be sad.

Life is not constant as it is not fair. The inequalities of the way life is tends to have its purpose for the formation of values and the realization of changing for the better from the worst.

It is apparently disgusting to feel life's bitterness. There is no constant happiness that would allow everyone to fully explore what it really means. That out from the feeling of being happy, we are then bombarded with successive trials and frustrations plus worries ahead of us.

The changing mood of life's tide is unpredictable. In one time, you will feel like a millionaire, then all of a sudden, you are in grief. There is that moment when you laugh out loud and it pays you more pain and deep regrets afterwards. There are pauses of misfortunes along the way and the ups are just at the end.

Indeed, life is so queer. No matter how we set to aspire for better things that there should be no interruptions and distractions, but still it gives finds its way to inflict pain and its much deeper pain.

But after all, I find life as wonderful!  

Wedding Invitations: How important it is.

Before any celebration takes place, part of the plan is to give invitations ahead of time to invited friends, guests as well as closed families as well.

Wedding celebration calls for the need to give Wedding invitations months or days before the wedding day. It should be included in the plan and in fact, giving of the wedding invitations should be the topmost priority that lovers who plan to get married should think of. They should indicate to whom they are going to send the wedding invitation, indicating the complete name of the person being invited. If the person is living far from their place, it is necessary to send the invitation ahead of time.

The purpose of sending Wedding invitation even to your closed family is a sort of respect and formal approach that the lovers' who will tie the knot in a wedding ceremony would make them feel dignified that they are part of the once-in-a-lifetime event. It is the presence that calls for the invitation and that the need of each other is there for its success.

Thursday, January 10, 2013

Biochemistry: How important it is.

The benefits of Moscato in health.

The body needs to be healthy. It needs to be nourished with only what we call healthy elements for normal functioning.

To live healthy is what most of the people do want and even work out for. In fact, the kind of preparations and activities that people want to attain doing is to be fit and healthy all their lives. Some finds great shelter in whatever forms of attaining healthy they are into. There are others who go for physical exercise, cutting too much food intake and of course, taking something healthy in for the body. And the last would always connote to explain that people do need something they have to take in in order to attain optimum good health.

The secret? It is all in a healthy drink! In fact, it is in moscato. Then you will want to know, what is moscato?

Moscato is the healthy solution for a good health habit!

Saturday, January 5, 2013

Django Unchained: What to expect

This action/adventure movie is directed by Quentin Tarantino and stars Jamie Foxx, Christoph Waltz, Leonardo DiCaprio, Kerry Washington and Samuel L. Jackson.

The story circled more quest for truth and justice. Thre is the rescuing of a wife from the brutal enemy, the Mississippi Plantation owner and much more.

This film goes hand-in-hand for your watching adventure!

Wednesday, January 2, 2013

Netherland's Amsterdam

What a beautiful place everyone can see here at Amsterdam. It is the Netherlands' most visited place as well.

Amsterdam is said to be the largest city and capital of Netherlands. This city is situated in the province of North Holland which is in the west part of the country. It is also regarded as one of the important port in the world as well due to business trading.

This is truly Netherlands' one of its precious!
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