Thursday, January 17, 2013

Madeleine Leininger: Her life.

My teacher in English told the class that we are going to select out from the numerous Nursing Theorists to make a biography of their lives in terms of their background, personal achievements, their contribution and works. I have chosen Madeleine Leininger because I have admired the kind of efforts she shared especially to the field of nursing. It makes me significant to know her.

This is what I have got in my short research of her.


Madeleine Leininger, PhD, LHD, DS, CTN, RN, FAAN, FRCNA

            She was born on July 13, 1925 in Sutton, Nebraska, U.S.A.,lived on a farm with four brothers and sisters, and graduated from Sutton High School. Her desire to pursue a career in nursing was due to her inspiration and experience with her aunt who suffered from congenital heart disease. She died at her home at the same state on August 10, 2012.
            She earned a nursing diploma from St. Anthony's Hospital School of Nursing, followed by undergraduate degrees at Mount St. Scholastica College and Creighton University. She received a Master of Science in Nursing at Catholic University of America. She later studied cultural and social anthropology at the University of Washington, earning a Ph.D. in 1966.
            Professor Leininger was Dean of the Schools of Nursing at the University of Washington and the University of Utah. She was the first full-time President of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing and one of the first members of the American Academy of Nursing in 1975. She is the author and editor of over 28 books and over 200 published articles. She has given approximately 1,800 keynote and general public lectures in the USA and overseas. She was the first graduate professional nurse to pursue a PhD in anthropology in the 1950s and conducted the first transcultural nursing research study in the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea. Since then she has studied over 15 Western and non-Western cultures. She remains active as a transcultural researcher, theorist, and consultant with several organizations worldwide.

            During her past 50 years in academe, she has taught over 30,000 nursing students and students from other disciplines in her areas of expertise namely transcultural nursing, health care, globalization of health care, qualitative research methods, human caring, the theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality, cultures of nursing and medicine, structure of cultural organizations, and the future of nursing and health care.
            Her main contribution especially to the world of Nursing is her Madeleine Leininger's theory of Transcultural Nursing, also known as Culture Care Theory, falls under both the category of a specialty, as well as a general practice area. The theory has now developed into a discipline in nursing.
            Dr. Leininger's theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality with her well known Sunrise Model and her ethnonursing research method continue to be used worldwide as the major holistic and yet particularistic theory to establish the transcultural nursing discipline and profession as the new direction for the future. This theory was the first cultural care nursing theory and the first ethnonursing research method in nursing. While the theory was slow to take hold due to nurses' lack of knowledge about cultures and transcultural care phenomena, it has gained significance worldwide. Dr. Leininger was the first in the 1960s to coin the concept "culturally congruent care" which was the goal of the Theory of Culture Care, and today the concept is being used globally. Her Culture Care Theory is being taught in many nursing schools and used in general interdisciplinary health professional schools and community agencies. It is also used for culturalogical assessments to transform health care systems from largely unicultural to multicultural practices. Canada, Finland, Sweden, Australia, the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, Europe, and the Caribbean have discovered the importance of the culture care theory to arrive at holistic and comprehensive care knowledge to guide nursing practices. Today the transcultural nursing and health care movement is viewed by many as one of the most significant and major breakthroughs of the 20th Century and essential for future health care practices.
            Leininger held at least three honorary doctoral degrees. He held faculty positions at the University of Cincinnati and the University of Colorado, followed by service as a nursing school dean at both the University of Washington and the University of Utah. She was Professor Emeritus of Nursing at Wayne State University and an adjunct faculty member at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha. She received an honor and awards in 1998 for Living Legend, American Academy of Nursing and  Distinguished Fellow, Royal College of Nursing in Australia.
            It was in the early 1950s Dr. Leininger saw a critical need to establish the new field of transcultural nursing as a formal area of study and practice. Then in 1974, she spearheaded establishing the Transcultural Nursing Society as the official organization with annual trans-world conventions with chapters of the society. Later, in 1978 the National Research Caring Conferences that became the International Caring Association in 1987. She also established the Journal of Transcultural Nursing and served as editor from 1989-1995. In addition, she initiated and promoted worldwide certification of transcultural nurses (CTN) for client safety and knowledgeable care for people of diverse cultures.
            The Transcultural Nursing theory first appeared in Leininger's Culture Care Diversity and Universality, published in 1991, but it was developed in the 1950s. The theory was further developed in her book Transcultural Nursing, which was published in 1995. In the third edition of Transcultural Nursing, published in 2002, the theory-based research and the application of the Transcultural theory are explained.
            In transcultural nursing, nurses practice according to the patient's cultural considerations. It begins with a culturalogical assessment, which takes the patient's cultural background into consideration in assessing the patient and his or her health. Once the assessment is complete, the nurse should use the culturalogical assessment to create a nursing care plan that also takes the patient's cultural background into consideration.
            There are many reasons it's beneficial for nurses to use cultural knowledge of patients to treat them. First of all, it helps nurses to be aware of ways in which the patient's culture and faith system provide resources for their experiences with illness, suffering, and even death. It helps nurses to be understanding and respectful of the diversity that is often very present in a nurse's patient load. It also helps strengthen a nurse's commitment to nursing based on nurse-patient relationships and emphasizing the whole person rather than viewing the patient as simply a set of symptoms or an illness. Finally, using cultural knowledge to treat a patient also helps a nurse to be open minded to treatments that can be considered non-traditional, such as spiritually based therapies like meditation and anointing.
            In the Transcultural Nursing theory, nurses have a responsibility to understand the role of culture in the health of the patient. Not only can a cultural background influence a patient's health, but the patient may be taking home remedies that can affect his or her health, as well.
            Leininger identified three nursing decisions and actions that achieve culturally friendly care for the patient. They are: cultural preservation or maintenance, cultural care accomodation or negotiation, and cultural care repatterning or restructuring. (Leininger, 2012)


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